Sunday, July 15, 2012

History of the keyboard, keyboard functions, and the meaning of the symbols on the keyboard

keyboard functions
The keyboard is an input device that is used for typing information into the computer, and run a variety of instructions or commands into the computer. Creation of a computer keyboard is inspired by the creation of a classic manual typewriter, the basic design is created by Christopher Latham, in 1868, and heavily marketed in 1877, by the Remington Company. When you hear the word keyboard, then our minds can not be separated from the presence of a computer, because the keyboard is a board consisting of the keys, to type sentences and other special symbols on the computer.

The keyboard used to type text and numbers into a word processor, text editor or other program on the computer. The keyboard is also used to play computer games, either with regular keyboards or by using a keyboard with special gaming features, which can expedite frequently used keystroke combinations. The keyboard is also used to give commands to the computer operating system, such as the key combination Control-Alt-Delete in Windows operating system, to display the Task Manager window.

The first computer keyboard adapted from the pit card (punch card), and distance delivery technology writing (Teletype). In 1946, ENIAC computer using a card reader manufacturer's hole (punched card reader) as a means of input and output.

History of the keyboardHistory of computer keyboard is closely associated with the history of classic typewriters, first discovered by Christopher Latham Sholes (1868). When creating a classic typewriter, people can type faster. Too quickly, the possibility of typing, so often have problems in that time. Often when the button is pressed, the trunks of letters (slug) is stomping on the ink ribbon having a mechanical failure, which is more often caused because the rods each hook (jamming). Confused thinking about the solution at the time, Christopher Latham Sholes would mess up the sequence of letters on the classic typewriter, be such, until it was a combination of letters that are considered the most difficult to use in typing. The goal, to avoid mechanical errors that often occur earlier. Finally, the composition of the typewriter keyboard is revealed in the modern as a computer input, and in 1973 opened as a standard keyboard ISO (International Standards Organization).

There are several standard keyboard layout used today. ASK (American Simplified Keyboard), commonly called Dvorak, who was discovered by Dr. August Dvorak around 1940. Dvorak arrangement allows us to type more efficiently. But perhaps because of late, finally Dvorak should not compete with the QWERTY keyboard, which was first used in the market.

Data port is the communication bridge between the computer keyboard. Currently, the PS2 keyboard port adopted, at the same time, some products use a USB port. Keyboard functions are related, according to different methods of data communication, the keyboard is classified into the keyboard with the cable, and wireless keyboard. Most keyboards are connected to the computer via a data cable connected to a PS2 port or USB port. Keyboard to communicate wirelessly with a computer via infrared or other radio waves.

On the keyboard, there are buttons the letters A-Z, a-z, digits 0-9, and the special characters such as: `~ @ # $% ^ & * () _ - + = <> /,. ? :; "'\ |, And other special keys that the total number is 104. Meanwhile, the classic typewriter, the number of buttons there are 52 buttons. Keyboard generally rectangular shape, but the current model, the keyboard is very varied. The most famous keyboard is a QWERTY keyboard, which has 101 keys. Most keyboards have a button that has been compiled is specified, namely, Alphanumeric Key, Numeric Key, Function Key, Modifier Key, Cursor Movement Key.

Function keys on the Keyboard
F1 = widely used to help
F2 = rename, change volume
F3 = searching
F5 = refresh, slide show on powerpoint
F6 = addressing
F12 = save as
Prt Scr SysRq = print screen (to shoot at each display monitor)
Scroll Lock = locks the functionality of a mouse scroll glidder
Pause Break = change the computer into stand-by condition
Tab = skip some characters
Caps Lock = convert letters to uppercase
Shift = change character and turn on the function symbols in
certain conditions
Num Lock = activate the numeric keypad on the right in
Home = restore cursor position at the beginning of a sentence
End = melrtakkan cursor at the position at the end of the sentence
Page Up / Pg Up = raise the screen per paragraph
Page Down / Pg Dn = lower screen per paragraph
Del = delete a character from the front
insert / ins = to replace a character
Backspace = mengahapus per character from behind
Space = jump one character
arrows keys = navigation keys
Escape = cancel an order phase
[Windows symbol] = enable the start menu

Moreover, in using Microsoft Office applications (especially MS. Word) there are some keyboard keys, has the function when combined with other buttons, like the example below:

Ctrl+ A Select all
Ctrl+ B Bold
Ctrl+ C Copy
Ctrl+ D Font
Ctrl+ E Center alignment
Ctrl+ F Find
Ctrl+ G Go to
Ctrl+ H Replace
Ctrl+ I Italic
Ctrl+ J Justify alignment
Ctrl+ K Insert hyperlink
Ctrl+ L Left alignment
Ctrl+ M Hanging indent
Ctrl+ N New
Ctrl+ O Open
Ctrl+ P Print
Ctrl+ Q Normal style
Ctrl+ R Right alignment
Ctrl+ S Save / save as
Ctrl+ T Left indent
Ctrl+ U underline
Ctrl+ V paste
Ctrl+ W Close
Ctrl+ X Cut
Ctrl+ Y Redo
Ctrl+ Z Undo
Ctrl+ 1 Single spacing
Ctrl+ 2 Double spacing
Ctrl+ 5 1,5 spacing
Ctrl+ Esc Start menu
Alt + F4 or ShutDown close the current program
Shift + F10 right-click Alternative
[Emblem Windows] + M to minimize all programs
[Emblem Windows] + Shift + M to maximize all of the programs
[Emblem Windows] + E to open Windows Explorer
Ctrl + Alt + Del to restart
Alt + (each letter in the system which underlined character) to the command that is on the menu.

The following table shows the symbol characters, names and Latin-1 number on a standard keyboard in their approximate positions on the keyboard. Most of the Roman character based languages ​​can be made on any computer using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, or ASCII using a single byte. Most computers and standard software also recognized American National Standards Institute (ANSI) format as well.

Character Description
Horizontal tab
Line feed
! Exclamation mark
" Quotation mark
# Number sign
$ Dollar sign
% Percent sign
& Ampersand
' Apostrophe
( Left parenthesis
) Right parenthesis
* Asterisk
+ Plus sign
, Comma
- Hyphen
. Period (dot)
/ Solidus (slash)
0 - 9 Digit 0 - 9
: Colon
; Semicolon
Less than
= Equals sign
Greater than
? Question mark
@ Commercial at
A - Z Capital A -Z
[ Left square bracket
\ Reverse solidus (backslash)
] Right square bracket
^ Caret
_ Horizontal bar (underscore)
` Acute accent
a - z Small a - z
{ Left curly brace
| Vertical bar
} Right curly brace
~ Tilde
Non-breaking Space
¡ Inverted exclamation
¢ Cent sign
£ Pound sterling
¤ General currency sign
¥ Yen sign
¦ Broken vertical bar
§ Section sign
¨ Diæresis / Umlaut
© Copyright
ª Feminine ordinal
« Left angle quote, guillemot left
¬ Not sign
Soft hyphen
® Registered trademark
¯ Macron accent
° Degree sign
± Plus or minus
² Superscript two
³ Superscript three
´ Acute accent
µ Micro sign
Paragraph sign
· Middle dot
¸ Cedilla
¹ Superscript one
º Masculine ordinal
» Right angle quote, guillemot right
¼ Fraction one-fourth
½ Fraction one-half
¾ Fraction three-fourths
¿ Inverted question mark
À Capital A, grave accent
Á Capital A, acute accent
 Capital A, circumflex
à Capital A, tilde
Ä Capital A, diæresis / umlaut
Å Capital A, ring
Æ Capital AE ligature
Ç Capital C, cedilla
È Capital E, grave accent
É Capital E, acute accent
Ê Capital E, circumflex
Ë Capital E, diæresis / umlaut
Ì Capital I, grave accent
Í Capital I, acute accent
Î Capital I, circumflex
Ï Capital I, diæresis / umlaut
Ð Capital Eth, Icelandic
Ñ Capital N, tilde
Ò Capital O, grave accent
Ó Capital O, acute accent
Ô Capital O, circumflex
Õ Capital O, tilde
Ö Capital O, diæresis / umlaut
× Multiply sign
Ø Capital O, slash
Ù Capital U, grave accent
Ú Capital U, acute accent
Û Capital U, circumflex
Ü Capital U, diæresis / umlaut
Ý Capital Y, acute accent
Þ Capital Thorn, Icelandic
ß Small sharp s, German sz
à Small a, grave accent
á Small a, acute accent
â Small a, circumflex
ã Small a, tilde
ä Small a, diæresis / umlaut
å Small a, ring
æ Small ae ligature
ç Small c, cedilla
è Small e, grave accent
é Small e, acute accent
ê Small e, circumflex
ë Small e, diæresis / umlaut
ì Small i, grave accent
í Small i, acute accent
î Small i, circumflex
ï Small i, diæresis / umlaut
ð Small eth, Icelandic
ñ Small n, tilde
ò Small o, grave accent
ó Small o, acute accent
ô Small o, circumflex
õ Small o, tilde
ö Small o, diæresis / umlaut
÷ Division sign
ø Small o, slash
ù Small u, grave accent
ú Small u, acute accent
û Small u, circumflex
ü Small u, diæresis / umlaut
ý Small y, acute accent
þ Small thorn, Icelandic
ÿ Small y, diæresis / umlaut

See also: